Home > Published Issues > 2024 > Volume 10, Number 1, 2024 >
IJLT 2024 Vol.10(1): 118-125
doi: 10.18178/ijlt.10.1.118-125

Development and Validation of Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge – Action Research in Teaching Science Instrument

Arnel A. Lorenzana1,2,* and Lydia S. Roleda2
1. Science, Technology, and Mathematics Department, Bicol University College of Education, Legazpi City, Philippines
2. Department of Science Education, De La Salle University, Manila, Philippines
Email: arnel_a_lorenzana@dlsu.edu.ph (A.A.L.); Lydia.roleda@dlsu.edu.ph (L.S.R)
*Corresponding author

Manuscript received May 4, 2023; revised July 27, 2023; accepted August 10, 2023; published February 2, 2024.

Abstract—This article describes the development and validation of Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge – Action Research in Teaching Science (TPACK-ARTS) Instruments. This instrument measures pre-service science teachers’ perception of action research and TPACK. The development and validation underwent three phases: instrument design, content validation, and construct validation. The items in the instrument were designed based on literature, and nine experts examined the appropriateness of the items in the instrument. The data from the expert validation was analyzed using Lawshe’s Content Validity Ration (CVR) method. The result suggested content validity. Exploratory factor analysis (N = 107) using principal component analysis and Varimax with Kaiser Normalization rotation generates three factors. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the three-factor model satisfies all the eligibility criteria for fit indices, showing evidence of construct validity. Furthermore, reliability analysis using the composite reliability, average variance extracted, standardized factor loadings, Cronbach’s alpha, and corrected item-total correlation all suggest the high reliability of the instrument. 
Keywords—Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge (TPACK), action research, instrument development, Content Validity Ratio (CVR), factor analysis 

Cite: Arnel A. Lorenzana and Lydia S. Roleda, "Development and Validation of Technological  Pedagogical and Content Knowledge – Action  Research in Teaching Science Instrument," International Journal of Learning and Teaching, Vol. 10, No. 1, pp. 118-125, 2024.

Copyright © 2024 by the authors. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0), which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided that the article is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.