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Measuring Coach Effects in Archery Sport with Hierarchical Linear Modeling

Kai-Li Wang 1 and Yun-Ci Ye 2
1. Graduate Institute of International Sport Affairs, National Taiwan Sport University, Taoyuan, Taiwan
2. Department of Somatic and Sports Leisure Industry, National Taitung University, Taitung, Taiwan

Abstract—Little quantitative research has been done on coaching effects. This is because scoring in sports games is often associated with teammates, adversaries, and referees. This paper attempts to initiate a probe into archery, whose scoring is relatively objective, to measure the coach effects in training. The score records, totally 6,044 pieces of data from 2270 players and 146 coaches, about standard outdoor target archery rounds in national archery competitions held between late 1997 and early 2007 in Taiwan were collected. The authors of this study managed to collect supplementary data of these players and coaches, including gender, seniority and educational background, etc. HLM (hierarchical linear modeling) analysis was performed by including the player-related data in the individual level of independent variables, and the coach-related data in the group level of independent variables with the 30-m archery game scores as the dependent variable. Results show that the coaching effect is non-ignorable because the intra-class correlation coefficient is high enough. We performed a further linear regression analysis of both individual level and group level. Results show that the coach effect is more important in the early-stage training. The training quality (measured by coach-player ratio) also seems considerable to training performance. The study result can serve as references for sport and physical education policy.
Index Terms—archery, sports performance, coach effect, coach-player ratio, hierarchical linear modeling

Cite: Kai-Li Wang and Yun-Ci Ye, "Measuring Coach Effects in Archery Sport with Hierarchical Linear Modeling," International Journal of Learning and Teaching, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 156-160, December 2016. doi: 10.18178/ijlt.2.2.156-160